The territory of Argentina is the second largest in South America after Brazil and eighth in extension of the Earth. It borders Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. Its geography is varied, mostly found in eastern plains, hills in the center and mountains in the west. The country is crossed, at its western end, from north to south along the Andes, much of which marks the border with Chile. The highest mountain in Argentina (and the world, outside the system of the Himalayas) is the Aconcagua, of 6.969 msnm.El Argentine territory under effective sovereignty has great latitudinal development: 3.779 kilometers between the extreme north and the south end, La Quiaca to Ushuaia.Según the National Geographic Institute of Argentina, American continental area is 2.791.810 km2. Arising here: 2.780.400 km² corresponding to the Capital Federal (Buenos Aires) and 23 Argentine provinces. The rest is constituted by the 11.410 km² Falkland Islands. In turn, Antarctic continental surface comprises 969. 464 km². These, about 965.597 km² correspond to Antarctica Argentina (claimed territory). Furthermore, this area includes South Shetland and South Orkney Islands. The 3.867 km² remaining are formed by the South Georgia (3.560 km²) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km²) as part of the department of the South Atlantic Islands Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands, like the Antarctic Sector (included as department). The sovereignty of the past two archipelagos plus Falkland Islands is disputed between Argentina and the United Kingdom, who administers. The total area thus amount to 3.761.274 km².
At the north it limits with the Bolivia's and Paraguay's Republics, whose end point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete, in the Province of Jujuy (Years. 21°46’S; Long. 66° 13'O).
At the south it limits with the Republic of Chile and the Athlantic Ocean, being the most austral end at Cape San Pío, located on the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego, (Years. 55°03’S; Long. 66° 31'O).
At the east, it limits with the Federal Republic of Brazil, Oriental Republic of Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean. The easternmost point is located northeast of the town of Bernardo de Irigoyen, in the Province of Misiones (Years. 26°15’S; Long. 53° 38'O).
At the west, it limits with the Republic of Chile. The end point is located between Cerro Agassis and Cerro Bolados (in the Mariano Moreno), in the Los Glaciares National Park - Province of Santa Cruz (Years. 49°33’S; Long. 73° 34'O).
Given the enormous size of the country, and its latitudinal and altitudinal development, Argentina has a huge variety of climates. As a rule, must be said that, Southern Cone being surrounded by huge oceanic masses, the variations between summer and winter are low in relation with a numerous regions in the north hemisphere middle latitudes. Argentina it counts with two pluvial regimens, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The first penetrates from the east and northeast and covers most of northern and central Mexico, and to have greater penetration in summer, causes increased rainfall at that time. The scheme comes from the west Pacific, and produces precipitation in the Andes and Patagonia, preferably in winter. By acting as a barrier Andes, rainfall is very low on the eastern slope of the same. Similarly, the vast expanse of land separating the Atlantic to the northwestern regions and Cuyo, there have also done little rain. Then we can speak of two main foci of precipitation, one that progresses from the northeast, with the higher rainfall 1500 millimeters in Missions, and other western Patagonia, with rainfall reaching 3000 mm in the southwest of Neuquén. From the province of Misiones, decreasing precipitation west and south occurs slowly, with values of around 1000 mm even in northern Buenos Aires and the center of Chaco. In Neuquén, due to the barrier of the Andes, a few miles east precipitation fall below 300 mm. A third focus of rainfall occurs in the Andean sub area north, where easterly winds “collide” with the range and downloaded into a thin strip (where the provincial capitals of Jujuy are located, Salta and Tucuman) amounts of about 1000 mm year, much more than the surrounding regions. Further, occur with strong seasonality, during summer, temperatures hold they obvious latitudinal and altitudinal distribution, with average of about 23 ° C in northern Formosa and 5 ° C in Tierra del Fuego. L 4000 high in the provinces of Mendoza and San Juan temperatures average -2 °C, and higher Andean peaks are probably the coldest places in South America, possibly with temperatures are in -15 °C. The western dry regions are usually warmer than the east, although the height above sea level can mark otherwise; this is best displayed in the Atlantic coastal areas, where height is obviously the same. Bahía Blanca warmer is that Mar del Plata; San Antonio Oeste is warmer than Viedma; Comodoro Rivadavia is warmer than the coastal areas that surround. That is due to the Foehn effect produced by strong westerly winds, as well as non influence of the Malvinas Current in these regions sheltered.
About 85% of the population are of European descent. Unlike other Latin American countries, in Argentina there is little mestizo population, although this population has grown recently. Predominantly Spanish and Italian immigrants and also significant numbers, French, English, German, Russians, Polish, Syrians and other immigration from South American countries.
Primary education is free and compulsory, in the aged 6 and 14 years old. There are about 1 million school students and university. It has 25 national and private universities.
The traditional most important component of Argentina songs and music are the gaucho dances. They also have influence of native music of the northern regions, European and on a smaller scale, African music. The tango, developed mainly in Buenos Aires, is a favorite ballroom dancing and an important contribution to global Argentina modern music. Astor Piazzola is a very important tango composer that has incorporated elements of jazz and a classic influence to this type of music in his works. Some of the most important argentinian writers are Estanislao del Campo, José Hernández, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Ricardo Güiraldes, Julio Cortázar, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Eduardo Mallea and Jorge Luis Borges. Among the painters of the twentieth century are included Cesareo Bernaldo de Quirós, Benito Quintela Martín, Emilio Pettoruti and Raúl Soldi.
The Argentine health program dates from 1944. Health services workers are guaranteed by various organizations and others for the existence of some hospitals and free clinics. Health indices are relatively high and efforts are made to ensure medical facilities in rural localities.
According to the Constitution adopted in 1853, Argentina is a federal republic, headed by a president who is assisted by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power rests on Congress, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.