Bolivia

General Information

bolivia

Location and extension:
Bolivia is located in central South America, between 57 º 26 'And 69 No. 38′ west longitude of Greenwich and parallel 9th ​​38′ and 22 ° 53’ south latitude, including more than 13 ° geography. The area is approximately 1.098.581 square kilometers.

Limits
Bounded on the north and east by Brazil, south to Argentina, with Peru, west, southeast, southwest of Paraguay and Chile.
Political Division:
The Plurinational State of Bolivia is divided into 9 departments: Pando, Me, La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Tarija and Santa Cruz.
Capital: Sugar (Chuquisaca)
Seat of government: La Paz.

Physiography
Considered in the territory comprises three main geographical areas:
* Andes: Covers 28% the country. Estimated length of a 307.000 square kilometers. This area is over 3.000 meters, which lies between the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental or Real, having some of the highest peaks of America. Here is Lake Titicaca, considered the highest lake in the world, located in an area of ​​3.810m 8.100 km2, It is navigable for large vessels and has many islands.
* Sakraj: Intermediate region between the highlands and the eastern plains, covers 13% the territory. It consists of the valleys and the Yungas (at an average altitude of 2.500 meters), is characterized by its agricultural activity and a temperate climate with hot water (15° a 25°C).
* Llanos: Covers 59% the territory lies north of the Cordillera Oriental or Real, understanding of the plains and vast forests, rich in flora and fauna. Recorded at an average annual temperature of 22 ° to 25 ° C.
Bolivia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world has 9 great eco regions and 42 natural ecological units with a great diversity of flora and fauna, 10 Sometimes existing recognized global ecological reserves.
Bolivia has 29 protected areas, of which 12 are National Parks, 9 National Reserves, 2 Biosphere Reserves, 2 shrines and 4 wildlife sites.

Historical Overview
* Prehispanic Period:In Bolivia are remains of human occupation from the 12.000-10.000 a. D. on the site of Viscachani. To 1.200 a. D. a sedentary cultures develop in the highlands. The Chiripa and Wankarani are the two most important formative period from 1.200 a. D.
The culture of Tiwanaku (declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO), near Lake Titicaca, marks a time of cultural flowering of the Altiplano, its influence spread throughout the Andean region. This culture is considered by many researchers the "cradle of American civilization" .1
According to a legend, the founders of the Inca Empire, Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo were born from the foam of Lake Titicaca on the Isla del Sol), Today Bolivia. The archaeological and cultural remains of the lowlands in eastern Bolivia, are less known.
* The Conquest : Inca Empire by Francisco Pizarro opened the way for the submission of Bolivia Current Year 1535 and the establishment of the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, essential part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, covering everything today is Bolivia (knowing the name of Alto Peru). Upper Peru was characterized by filing a mining agricultural base. The city of Potosí, It became a major mining center for the exploitation of the silver mines of Cerro Rico de Potosi and 1611 was the largest silver producer in the world. This period lasted three centuries conquest.
* Independence: The 25 May 1809 Chuquisaca Revolution broke, Independence launching Hispanoamericana. A month and a half after the revolution broke out in La Paz, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo, which was violently repressed by the Spanish, choking independence leaders. The 6 August 1824 Bolivar defeated the Spanish army in the fields of Junín.
* Democratic period :In October 1982 Hernán Siles Zuazo again took over the presidency. Thus beginning the democratic period in the Republic of Bolivia. He faced several crises, trying to give the guarantees necessary for the country's growth and stabilize the economy.
* Evo Morales And Government Of New Constitution :He took office on 22 January 2006 as the first Bolivian president to be elected President by an absolute majority of 54% of the votes, declaring the first indigenous president in a country where more than half of the population is. With the new government, also came a new constitution and change of name for the country, ceasing to be Republic of Bolivia and becoming the Plurinational State of Bolivia.

Weather
The climate of Bolivia covers a wide variety of climates: from tropical in Los Llanos, to polar in high ranges of the Andes. Bolivia is located within the area of ​​the Tropic of Capricorn. In addition to the variability of weather conditions, many parts of the country have irregular climates throughout the year or large and unpredictable variations.

Destinations
La Paz:
The City of Our Lady of La Paz was founded on 20 October 1548. La Paz, the city that touches the sky. It lies in a basin surrounded by highlands 3500 meters above sea level. It is a scene of startling contrasts: a core group of church towers and office buildings dwarfed by the magnificent ice covered peak, the imposing Illimani. On both sides, the steep slopes of La Paz Ollada are covered by housing. With a population of around 835.000, La Paz is the political center, commercial and cultural Bolivia.
* Copacabana – Lake Titicaca:
Copacabana Bay, on the shores of the highest navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca, It is a place of recreation where visitors can enjoy rowing boat trips, kayaks and small boats with decorative figures. Further, the tourist can find for certain periods bike rental, motorbikes or native horses. Besides, These ships provide an opportunity for visitors to visit different islands (Isla del Sol, Moon Island) or take a tour of these magical waters in the Bolivian altiplano.
* Ruins of Tiahuanaco:
Principal archaeological site of Bolivia. It is 72 km. City of La Paz. It is considered one of the most ancient Andean cultures besides being the most representative. These ruins are known for their monumentality and perfection of constructive and decorative art. Within their environment there is a highland plain between two mountains, some growth fields and native comunities. The visitor can travel this surface of 30 hectares, representing a set of Templars remains of the Tiwanaku culture, including the Temple of Kalasasaya which reaches a height of 126 meters, inside which is the famous Puerta del Sol, and semi-underground section with its enigmatic ball heads and the remains of Kantataita, Putuni and Kericala. Also you can apreciate the Akapana and Pumapunku piramids, they are actually in excavation process. By the other hand, Tourists can appreciate the craftsmanship of the area is characterized by small stones carefully carved, modeled monoliths, Tiwanaku and Aymara amulets; likewise the masterfully crafted pottery as ceremonial vessels, incense burners, gates of the sun and others to offer.
* Madidi National Park:
It is a region that harbors the greatest biodiversity in the country, even National Geographic magazine lists it as one of the most important natural reserves in the world, has an area of 1.895.740 has.; it founds in the northeast region of the La Paz department. The Madidi National Park is one of the paradisiac places of the amazonic jungle that tourist cannot leave out of their visit in Bolivia, inside houses over 6.000 species of higher plants and over 1.000 species of birds among which the Paraba Bluebeard.

Cochabamba:
The city of Cochabamba, also called "Llajta", is located in the heart of Bolivia and displayed his legendary history, traditions, varied cuisine and all its mystery to dazzle whoever visits. Cochabamba is the capital of the department of the same name, and it is constituted in the third most biggest city of Bolivia. The Cochabamba Tropic it's a natural and heavenly of exuberant vegetation. This tourist route is considered one of the most popular tourist products Cochabamba. Just two and a half hours from the city circuit begins in Inkachaca, followed by Villa Tunari, Shinahota, Chimoré, Puerto Villarroel and Entre Ríos. It is a paradise for ecotourism and adventure tourism outdoors; each of the municipalities has attractions importance that magnify the tour. This region has well developed its tourism plant, services and facilities for tourists.

Santa Cruz:
Santa Cruz de la Sierra is a tropical paradise of Bolivia which houses fascinating sights and delights of this destination, with extraordinary natural and cultural heritage. The city of Santa Cruz is the largest and most populous of Bolivia, what makes economic and industrial center of the country.
Urbanistically, the city is bounded by a main street network, all drawn under the traditional Spanish style, with a central square in the "old town", which is surrounded by rings surrounding avenues calls, of those born several avenues called radial, that disperse in multiple directions. Of great landscaping and natural value, Santa Cruz de la Sierra has a significant range of attractions that invite discovery anyone who runs this city that holds a natural wealth, historic and modern, that captivates the visitor an unforgettable experience.
* Misiones Jesuíticas Chiquitanas:
The Jesuit Missions include the towns of San Xavier, Conception, San Antonio de Lomerío, San Ignacio de Velasco, San Miguel, San Rafael, Santa Ana de Velasco. They're an history and culture references across the world, even it was declared a Cultural heritage of Humanity by the UNESCO 1990, were built between the years 1691 and 1760 by the Spanish settlers with the purpose of evangelizing the natives of the place. Visitors can travel through the last Jesuit towns that still exist in South America and to appreciate the cultural and artistic legacy of mestizo Baroque embodied in buildings of temples and chapels in each population are magnificent carved in wood, missionary buildings were restored in the late 60 using construction techniques of missionary era. Before the arrival of the colonizers Chiquitania comprised about 80 indigenous communities living in complete harmony under their own customs, ideology and traditions that responded to the collective culture of native peoples. In this region the visitor as well as find important heritage monuments is also a landscape of the Eastern plain of singular beauty that gives rise simultaneously to the presence of a wide range of orchids, so every year is celebrated the International Orchid Festival.
* Samaipata
Samaipata is a beautiful village with influence both Eastern and valluna. In Samaipata restaurants are simple but good food, especially around the square, Some pubs, cafés and various craft centers an archaeological museum and a beautiful church. While it is possible to visit Samaipata per day, it is advisable to plan a stay of up to 5 days to visit the many attractions to the easily accessed. Samaipata is the meeting point of three major geographical regions, ecological and cultural, the mountains of the Andes, the Chaco plains of dry forests and rainforests of the Amazon Basin.

Potosí:
Potosi is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage, was built in the sixteenth century with all the characteristics of a Spanish-era city. During the 17TH century came to be known as the third most important city in the world by the wealth that was to have great mining exploitation of the Cerro Rico of Potosi.al product walk the streets of the historic center you can see the narrowness of the streets, the distribution and organization grid layout, besides houses and monuments of singular beauty and history that holds the golden age of the silver mining for the country. Besides touring the city in Potosi is important to visit the Cerro Rico, the Bank of Wits, Lagoons of Kari Kari, Mint.
* Uyuni Salt Place:
The Salar de Uyuni is the largest salt desert ongoing World, It is located southwest of Bolivia, has an area of 12.000 km2 and is located 3.700 m.s.n.m. About salar are several salt hotels with unique characteristics extravagant world. This semi-desert and volcanic lands encloses resources of great economic importance as booking 9 million tons of lithium and other minerals; and landscapes of outstanding natural beauty. Additionally, there are rock formations, wells and spectacular volcanic geysers, dating back to the visitor to the time of the formation of the earth. Driving through this salt lake is an extraordinary experience, especially during the winter, when the intense blue sky contrasts with the bright white of the salt crust. When the weather is cloudy effect occurs "White - out", where the horizon fades to nothing, making it impossible to differentiate the earth from heaven.
* Andean Fauna National Reserve Eduardo Abaroa:
Reserve Eduardo Abaroa, is one of the most scenic regions of the country, alongside the Salar de Uyuni, especially in the promotion done as part of the destination "Deserts White and Lagunas de Colores". The vegetation is characterized by the strong presence of tussock grasslands (brava straw) in some plains and hillsides are semicircles. In wetter sites can be found plants Tola (tholares) and in some rocky streams (between 4.300 and 3.700 m), keñua associated in some cases with large cushions yareta. The fauna is characterized by the presence of unique species that have adapted to the extreme conditions of life in the region, some of them endangered, are 80 bird species of which the most representative are the three species of flamingos that inhabit it, They are also the main attraction, these are the Andean Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo Flamingo and James, are also, Andean geese, Hawks, pathos, the small rhea, ostrich-like bird, flightless; in addition to endangered species like the Andean condor. Also 23 mammal species that thrive in the reserve.

Sugar::
Sucre is the capital of Bolivia, You have been declared a Cultural Heritage of Humanity the 11 December 1991, and that is why it is a cultural and heritage destination of Bolivia, specifically within the city in the old town where historic events occurred that Bolivia is an independent nation, besides temples, convention, chapels, museums. Other attractions, among the most representative are: The church of San Lázaro, The church and convent of Santa Clara, The Temple and Convent of Santa Teresa, The Colonial Casona that houses the Museo Universitario Charcas, The Metropolitan Cathedral and the Chapel of Our Lady of Guadalupe, La Casa de la Libertad, The Historical Museum, The Municipality of Sucre, etc.
* Fair Tarabuco:
Tarabuco Sunday Fair takes place every Sunday in the village, attended by members of the surrounding communities wearing their typical clothes, to sell their crafts and textiles, turning the show into an attractive living culture, also an agricultural fair where some farmers still maintain the practice of "barter" is made the same as it was done in pre- Hispanic and consists of an exchange of agricultural products.